Scottish

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People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States.

Scottish local elections, 2012 - Wikipedia

After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes. With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots language. Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form. While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day. Today most Scottish people speak Scottish English, which has some distinctive vocabulary and may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.

Scottish Borders - Wikipedia

Gurro in Italy is said to be populated by the descendants of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia who arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards that forced many, if not all, to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day, the town of Gurro is still proud of its Scottish links. Many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames. The town also has a Scottish museum.

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Significant numbers of Scottish people also settled in New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country. The South Island city of Dunedin, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to Edinburgh by the city’s Scottish founders.

The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many Caledonian societies were formed, well over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders. In the 1961 census there were 47,078 people living in New Zealand who were born in Scotland; in the 2013 census there were 25,953 in this category.

By 1592, the Scottish community in Rome was big enough to merit the building of Sant’Andrea degli Scozzesi (English: St Andrew of the Scots). It was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who fled their country because of religious persecution. In 1615, Pope Paul V gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. The church and facilities became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, set up residence in Rome in 1717, but were abandoned during the French occupation of Rome in the late 18th century. In 1820, although religious activity was resumed, it was no longer led by the Jesuits. Sant’Andrea degli Scozzesi was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated into a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November.

Historically, Scottish people have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by forebears of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people are English, Scots (various dialects) and Gaelic. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina.

Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language with similarities to Irish. Scottish Gaelic comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by the Pictish people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (lingua Scottica, Scottis) became the de facto language of the whole Kingdom of Alba, giving its name to the country (Scotia, “Scotland”). Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread from Galloway into Dumfriesshire. It is unclear if the Gaelic of 12th century Clydesdale and Selkirkshire came from Galloway or Scotland-proper. The predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by the end of the Middle Ages, Scotland was divided into two linguistic zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland clearances actively discouraged the use of Gaelic, caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall. Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to countries such as Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. A report in 2005 by the Registrar General for Scotland based on the 2001 UK Census showed about 92,400 people or 1.9% of the population can speak Gaelic while the number of people able to read and write rose by 7.5% and 10% respectively. Outwith Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the Canadian Gaelic community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. Gaelic language is recognised as a minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some schools and is prominently seen in use on dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of Scotland with “equal respect” to English.

In modern usage, “Scottish people” or “Scots” is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scotti, originally the word referred specifically to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.

Many people of Scottish descent live in other parts of the United Kingdom. In Ulster particularly the colonial policies of James I, known as the plantation of Ulster, resulted in a Presbyterian and Scottish society, which formed the Ulster-Scots community. The Protestant Ascendancy did not however benefit them much, as the English espoused the Anglican Church. The number of people of Scottish descent in England and Wales is difficult to quantify due to the many complex migrations on the island, and ancient migration patterns due to wars, famine and conquest. The 2011 Census recorded 708,872 people born in Scotland resident in England, 24,346 resident in Wales and 15,455 resident in Northern Ireland.

By the 17th century, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots lived in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen. Scots could be found in Polish towns on the banks of the Vistula as far south as Kraków. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656, a number of Scottish highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell’s rule went to Poland to join the service of the King of Sweden in his war against it.

As the third-largest ethnic group in Canada and amongst the first Europeans to settle in the country, Scottish people have made a large impact on Canadian culture since colonial times. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial Scottish descent is 4,714,970, or 15.10% of the nation’s total population.

Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for “Canadian” does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles origins. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (Latin for “New Scotland”). There, in Cape Breton, where both lowland and highland Scots settled in large numbers, Canadian Gaelic is still spoken by a small number of residents. Cape Breton is the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts. Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario is a historic county that was set up as a settlement for Highland Scots, where many from the Highlands settled to preserve their culture in result of the Highland Clearances. Gaelic was the native language of the community since its settlement in the 18th century although the number of speakers decreased since as a result of English migration. As of the modern 21st century, there are still a few Gaelic speakers in the community.

By 1830, 15.11% of the colonies’ total population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the total population. The Australian Gold Rush of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated to Australia, far more than other British or Irish populations at the time. Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90-95%. By 1860, Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in New South Wales included New England, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra.

A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century and substantial numbers of Scots continued to arrive after 1945. From 1900 until the 1950s, Scots favoured New South Wales, as well as Western Australia and Southern Australia. A strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland Games, dance, Tartan Day celebrations, clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found throughout modern Australia.

Many royal grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 18th century, at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. “Bonnie Prince Charlie” was half Polish, since he was the son of James Stuart, the “Old Pretender”, and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. In 1691, the City of Warsaw elected the Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer (Alexander Chalmers) as its mayor.

According to the Social Scottish Attitudes research, 52% of Scottish people identified as having no religion in 2016. As a result, Scotland has thus become a secular and majority non-religious country, unique to the other UK countries.

In the English language, the word Scotch is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as Scotch whisky. However, when referring to people, the preferred term is Scots. Many Scottish people find the term Scotch to be offensive when applied to people. The Oxford Dictionary describes Scotch as an old-fashioned term for “Scottish”.

Alastair Rawlinson is Head of Data Acquisition at The Glasgow School of Art’s School of Simulation and Visualisation, where he co-manages the Visualisation Team, has an applied research remit and leads on the Scottish Ten involvement for GSA. He has extensive experience in heritage digital documentation and visualisation as well as medical visualisation. Alastair is a professional product designer, with a B.Sc. (Hons) from Glasgow Caledonian University. He has worked in the 3D visualisation sector since graduation and joined The Glasgow School of Art in 2006, where he embarked on the digital documentation of an entire city to create the ‘Urban Model of Glasgow’. Alastair is responsible for fieldwork coordination, management of data processing and creation of digital interactives for all Scottish Ten sites. He specialises in the management and delivery of large scale, complex digital documentation projects, which often require innovative and bespoke solutions to data capture. He is passionate about 3D technologies and the practical applications of 3D data for the benefit of historic and industrial sites.

Sam’s main role in the Scottish 10 is as a 3D modeller and animator at the School of Simulation and Visualisation, creating photorealistic 3D visualisations based upon the scan data. He has recently worked on other projects creating content for the Bannockburn visitor, training tools for NHS education, and visualisations for the Queensferry crossing. Sam has been involved in the scanning of several Scottish Ten sites usually on the underbelly of large steel structures, and as a result of this has developed a liking for rust.

Bio Alastair Rawlinson is Head of Data Acquisition at The Glasgow School of Art’s School of Simulation and Visualisation, where he co-manages the Visualisation Team, has an applied research remit and leads on the Scottish Ten involvement for GSA. He has extensive experience in heritage digital documentation and visualisation as well as medical visualisation. Alastair is a professional product designer, with a B.Sc. (Hons) from Glasgow Caledonian University. He has worked in the 3D visualisation sector since graduation and joined The Glasgow School of Art in 2006, where he embarked on the digital documentation of an entire city to create the ‘Urban Model of Glasgow’. Alastair is responsible for fieldwork coordination, management of data processing and creation of digital interactives for all Scottish Ten sites. He specialises in the management and delivery of large scale, complex digital documentation projects, which often require innovative and bespoke solutions to data capture. He is passionate about 3D technologies and the practical applications of 3D data for the benefit of historic and industrial sites.

Bio Sam’s main role in the Scottish 10 is as a 3D modeller and animator at the School of Simulation and Visualisation, creating photorealistic 3D visualisations based upon the scan data. He has recently worked on other projects creating content for the Bannockburn visitor, training tools for NHS education, and visualisations for the Queensferry crossing. Sam has been involved in the scanning of several Scottish Ten sites usually on the underbelly of large steel structures, and as a result of this has developed a liking for rust.

Research Modern Two houses a collection of prints, archives, and books from the mid-twentieth century to the present day. Modern art library The modern art library covers the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. Modern and contemporary works on paper The collection consists of Scottish and international twentieth and twenty-firstt century graphic art. Modern and contemporary art archive & special books The collection includes personal and institutional archives relating to twentieth and twenty-first century Scottish and international art.

Tickets this way Play now! Subscribe now Results Watch the draw on STV every Monday night Prize Breakdown Play now Only £1 to Play Helping Scotland’s Children Guaranteed Winners Subscriptions News Show all News Good causes win too with the Scottish Children’s Lottery! Every time you play the Scottish Children’s Lottery you are helping children in Scotland. Here’s just one of the many cheques presented to good causes. This time, Enable Scotland, through Rascals playgroup will provide support to children of all ages. Watch out for loads more cheque presentation pictures coming soon. The more you play – the more children in Scotland will benefit Read more This week’s charity  Chance to Connect is a grant-giving organisation that seeks to alleviate the disadvantages that many children in Scotland face. Targeting local regeneration, it aims to improve the provision of facilities, promote citizenship, and give young people across Scotland the chance to live in a safe, supportive and stimulating community. Read more Sean’s weekly forecast It’s weekly forecast time ! This week I’m going for numbers that have been drawn FIVE times so far ! Those numbers are 16, 24, 31, 34 and 41 If you use any of these numbers for Monday’s draw, give me a high five if they appear! Good luck!Read more

News Show all News Good causes win too with the Scottish Children’s Lottery! Every time you play the Scottish Children’s Lottery you are helping children in Scotland. Here’s just one of the many cheques presented to good causes. This time, Enable Scotland, through Rascals playgroup will provide support to children of all ages. Watch out for loads more cheque presentation pictures coming soon. The more you play – the more children in Scotland will benefit Read more This week’s charity  Chance to Connect is a grant-giving organisation that seeks to alleviate the disadvantages that many children in Scotland face. Targeting local regeneration, it aims to improve the provision of facilities, promote citizenship, and give young people across Scotland the chance to live in a safe, supportive and stimulating community. Read more Sean’s weekly forecast It’s weekly forecast time ! This week I’m going for numbers that have been drawn FIVE times so far ! Those numbers are 16, 24, 31, 34 and 41 If you use any of these numbers for Monday’s draw, give me a high five if they appear! Good luck!Read more

Good causes win too with the Scottish Children’s Lottery! Every time you play the Scottish Children’s Lottery you are helping children in Scotland. Here’s just one of the many cheques presented to good causes. This time, Enable Scotland, through Rascals playgroup will provide support to children of all ages. Watch out for loads more cheque presentation pictures coming soon. The more you play – the more children in Scotland will benefit Read more This week’s charity  Chance to Connect is a grant-giving organisation that seeks to alleviate the disadvantages that many children in Scotland face. Targeting local regeneration, it aims to improve the provision of facilities, promote citizenship, and give young people across Scotland the chance to live in a safe, supportive and stimulating community. Read more Sean’s weekly forecast It’s weekly forecast time ! This week I’m going for numbers that have been drawn FIVE times so far ! Those numbers are 16, 24, 31, 34 and 41 If you use any of these numbers for Monday’s draw, give me a high five if they appear! Good luck!Read more

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